Anderson and Anderson (2010) characterize online continuing professional education (CPE) conferences as "structured, time[-]delineated" events involving "distributed population[s]" in synchronous or asynchronous use of "online communication and collaboration tools" (p. 15). They suggest that these characteristics may enhance "both the quantity and quality of interaction" in formal CPE sessions, thanks to possibilities for preliminary access to conference materials, world-wide participation, and asynchronous as well as real-time interpersonal engagements (p. 22), which in turn may promote constructivist and connectivist modes of learning within professional communities of practice (pp. 7-10). Anderson, Lynn; & Anderson, Terry. (2010). Online Conferences: Professional Development for a Networked Era. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.